Third Grade - Literature - Overview - September

The emphasis of literature in grade three, as in prior grades, is on the enjoyment of poetry and stories and an appreciation of the beauty of language. Minimal technical analysis is suggested in some lessons, but it is not required. The essential part of the lesson is exposure to literature.

Sayings and Phrases
You may wish to post individual sayings or phrases in your classroom or accumulate a list on chart paper. Some may be familiar to the students, but others will be a first exposure. During its study you may want to discuss why a particular saying or phrase is no longer used. Useful books for the study of sayings and phrases are:

Fraser, Betty. First Things First. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.
Collection of familiar sayings.
Hudson, Cheryl and Wade, compiled by. Kids' Book of Wisdom: Quotes from the African American Tradition. East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1996. A collection of wise sayings familiar to many cultures.
Kelen, Emery, compiled by. Proverbs of Many Nations. New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepherd, 1966. Proverbs arranged by theme.
Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. New York: Harper & Row, 1977, 1988.
Vavoni, Marvin. Great Expressions. New York: William Morrow, 1989.
Reference on the origins of words and phrases.

Poetry
Students should be exposed to poetry frequently. Help them to appreciate the music of the poetry and be sure that you have practiced reading it before you introduce it to the class. Avoid a sing-song approach and help the students to avoid it as well. If students wish to memorize a poem congratulate their effort, but don't require it. Students should have the opportunity to read and write poetry as well as have it read to them. Technical analysis while not required, is included in some lessons.
Two poems are introduced this month. Couplets and their rhyming pattern are examined. Students are invited to write and illustrate.

Stories
Native American legends are read this month. They provide a wonderful link to the History and Art lessons. As you share the stories be sure to relate the information provided in the text and the illustrations to these lessons. Read a variety to provide an appreciation of many tribes.

Third Grade - Literature - Sayings and Phrases - Actions Speak Louder than Words

Objective
Illustrate the saying with an example.

Materials
Copy of the saying on chart paper or sentence strip

Suggested Books
Hirsch, E. D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Teacher Background
In Second Grade students were introduced to the saying Practice what you preach. Some students hopefully will make a connection during the course of this lesson. If none of your students reference this saying, there is an additional activity included. Do feel free to include Practice what you preach in the lesson if you wish.
Be prepared for possible confusion with Practice what you preach, Do as I say and not as I do and Actions speak louder than words. Students will be familiar with adults telling them not to smoke, not to drink, etc. while behaving that way themselves. You may need to point out that regarding these adults: Their actions do speak louder than their words; they should practice what they preach and they are telling others (their children) to do as I say and not as I do.

Procedure
Present the saying Actions speak louder than words with a demonstration of its meaning. Possible scenarios are:
You have a classroom filled with plants which you water and prune while you tell the students that you really don't care much for plants.
You announce that eating candy is forbidden in your classroom while you unwrap a piece and place it in your mouth.
You talk about the importance of caring for books and materials while you drop, spill, misplace items while you are talking.
After what you are doing becomes obvious to the students, stop and write (or display) the saying Actions speak louder than words on the board. Ask the students if your actions were speaking louder than your words. Is it possible that what you were doing did not match what you were saying? Tell the students that they have had a living example of "actions speaking."
Be sure to point out that the actions do not have to be negative behaviors, they are simply not the same as what the speaker tells you they should be.
Tell the students that this saying is a statement about how people behave. We can all easily agree that what people say and what they do are not always the same.
Sometimes people use this saying to remind another person about a promise or statement they have made. For example, a parent might remind a child that actions speak louder than words after the child has promised to keep his or her room clean. Or, someone might say that he or she was never going to eat a particular food again only to be told, "We'll see, actions speak louder than words."
Ask for volunteers to explain the saying either by telling what it means or acting out the meaning as you did in the beginning of class.

Additional Activity
Students may recall the saying Practice what you preach. Point out that following this advice will guarantee that your words and your actions match perfectly.
Remind students also that when someone "preaches" he or she is telling others how to live or behave. Therefore, when that person who is preaching behaves in an opposite way it is really different than someone who is just speaking for him or herself. The person who is "preaching" had better practice what he or she tells others to do, or it is a case of do as I say, not as I do.
Give an example to the students and ask them to match it to one of the sayings (Practice what you preach, Actions speak louder than words, or Do as I say, not as I do) and explain why you made that match. For example:
You tell everyone else how important it is to arrive on time for a trip and you are there early. (Practice what you preach)
You tell everyone else how important it is to arrive on time for a trip and you are late. (Do as I say, not as I do)
You tell everyone that you are really working on not being late anymore and on the day of the trip you are the first one there. (Actions speak louder than words)

Third Grade - Literature - Catch a Little Rhyme

Objectives
Recognize that the poem "Catch a Little Rhyme" is made up of couplets.
Compose several couplets to add to the poem.
Compose a couplet for a new poem (optional).

Materials
Copy of the poem on chart paper
Pages for couplet book (optional)

Suggested Books
deRegniers, Beatrice Schenk. Sing a Song of Popcorn. New York: Scholastic, 1988.
Collection of 128 poems, contains some wonderful rhymes.
Larrick, Nancy. Piping Down the Valleys Wild. New York: Delacorte, 1968.
Wonderful anthology that contains the poem "Catch a Little Rhyme."
Merriam, Eve. Blackberry Ink. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1985.
Delightful collection of Merriam's poems, includes several composed of couplets. Students will enjoy reading this collection illustrated by Hans Wilhelm.
________, Eve. You be Good and I'll be Night: Jump-on-the-Bed Poems. New York: William Morris, 1988. Many couplets and predictable rhymes are included.
Young, James. A Million Chameleons. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1990.
Colorful book composed of couplets; great fun for students to supply missing words in rhymes.

Teacher Reference
Larrick, Nancy. Let's Do a Poem: Introducing Poetry to Children Through Listening, Singing, Chanting, Impromptu, Choral Reading, Body Movement, Dance, and Dramatization. New York: Delacorte Press, 1991.
Wonderful handbook for the teacher. "How to Eat a Poem," "Catch a Little Rhyme," "Jamboree" are all included.
Moore, Jo Ellen and Joy Evans. Writing Poetry with Children: Teacher Resource Book. Monterey: EVAN-MOOR, 1988.
Useful guide complete with reproducible forms for poetry writing.

Teacher Background
This lesson on the first poem introduced in Third Grade invites the students to participate immediately. It is hoped that they will enjoy learning about different forms of poetry and different poets. If at all possible, share other poems by Eve Merriam, suggested titles are included.
Eve Merriam was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 19, 1916 and died April 11, 1992 in New York. Her poetry is easily recognizable for its sounds, rhythms and alliteration.

Procedure
Tell the students that they will be participants in the reading of the poem "Catch a Little Rhyme" and they will do this without being able to see a copy of the poem. Read aloud the first two lines of the poem,
"Once upon a time
I caught a little rhyme"

Ask the students what they noticed about the final word in each of the two lines (time, rhyme). (They rhyme.) Tell the students that given that information they should be able to help with the rest of the poem. Read each line and then have the students supply the missing word.

After you have read the poem in this manner, display the poem on chart paper and call on individuals to read the various pairs of lines. Ask the students if they recall the name given to a pair of lines that rhyme (couplet). If they have difficulty recalling this remind them that a couple is made up of two.
Ask: Was the poem easy to read? Why do you think it was easy to read the lines? (They rhymed.) Was this a serious poem? (no) Tell the students that the author of this poem, Eve Merriam believed that children should enjoy poetry. They may know her poem "How to Eat a Poem" that begins "Don't be polite. Bite in..." Suggest that she obviously had fun painting pictures with her words.

Tell the students that many poems are made up of couplets. Have them recall "One, two, buckle my shoe" that they heard when they were younger (Kindergarten) and "The Night Before Christmas" (Second grade). You may wish to share other examples by reading poems like
"Jamboree" by David McCord, A1 and 1 are 2" by Christina Rossetti, or "Frog Went A-Courtin'." The two Eve Merriam books (see Suggested Books) also include wonderful couplets and rhymes.
Draw the students' attention back to the poem "Catch a Little Rhyme." Note that in five couplets the word but is included. Ask for volunteers to suggest additional lines to add to the poem using this pattern. If students have difficulty you could ask for lines to follow "I left it in a chair but..." or "I washed it in the tub but..." or "I took it to the store but..."
If your students have been able to follow the previous exercise without a lot of difficulty you may suggest that they try composing couplets to a poem that begins "Last week I got my wish I caught a magic fish" or "Once I went to town and came back with a frown" or whatever opening lines you wish. Students who need help could be prompted to use a line that begins with I and contains but, such as "I held it in my hand but it jumped onto the sand" or "I tried to buy some honey but forgot I had no money" etc.
If you wish, provide paper for each student to write and illustrate his or her couplet. The couplets can then be put together to form a book. Blank pages could be made available for students who may wish to add to the book in the future, or who wish to try another idea. This would be an ideal activity for students who complete work before the rest of the class.
 

Additional Activity
The book A Million Chameleons is composed of couplets whose final word of rhyme is the name of a color. Students will enjoy providing the missing word before it is uncovered on the following page.
After hearing the rhymes and becoming familiar with the format, students may enjoy writing and illustrating more lines (and more colors) or different lines for the colors mentioned.

Third Grade - Literature - Trees

Objectives
Relate the ways Kilmer compares a tree to a person.
Recognize that the poem "Trees" is composed of couplets.
Be introduced to the term personification.
Compare Kilmer's impression of trees to other poet's impressions (optional).

Materials
Photographs and illustrations of trees, showing trees of different varieties and ages and their appearance during the change of seasons

Suggested Books
Behn, Harry. Trees: A Poem by Harry Behn. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1992.
Stunning, colorful pictures by James Endicott highlight this book.
Esbensen, Barbara Juster. Echoes for the Eye: Poems to Celebrate Patterns in Nature. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
This collection of poems about patterns in nature contains wonderful examples of personification and metaphors. Helen K. Davies illustrations are beautiful.
Ferris, Helen, ed. Favorite Poems Old and New. New York: Doubleday, 1957.
Wonderful anthology.
Hopkins, Lee Bennett, selected by. Crickets and Bullfrogs and Whispers of Thunder: Poems and Pictures by Harry Behn. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984.
Fifty of Harry Behn's poems grouped in three sections and illustrated with the author's drawings.
Larrick, Nancy, ed. Piping Down the Valleys Wild. New York: Delacorte, 1968.
Wonderful collection of poems.
Silverstein, Shel. The Giving Tree. New York: Harper, 1964.

Teacher Background
Alfred Joyce Kilmer was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey on December 6, 1886. While "Trees" is usually the poem most often associated with him, he actually wrote many poems about war and his experiences during World War I. Kilmer died on a French battlefield on July 30, 1918.
The poem "Trees" contains several references to God. You may wish to remind the students that these are the feelings and words of Joyce Kilmer and are not necessarily the feelings of everyone. The poem is presented for the students to appreciate its form and content and is not intended to advocate any particular religious beliefs.
The poem "Trees" by Harry Behn referenced in this lesson is included in Reading Mastery V, lesson 49.

Procedure
Begin the lesson by displaying a variety of photographs and illustrations of trees. Ask the students to look at them carefully and think about what all trees have in common and how they are different. Ask them to name the parts of a tree.
Write the word "Tree" on the chalkboard and web the parts of a tree suggested by the students. The web should include trunk, branches, roots, leaves.

Third Grade - Literature - Trees

Tell the students that Joyce Kilmer, the man whose poem you are about to read, had a unique way of picturing a tree. Tell them to listen to his poem "Trees" and think about the way he describes the parts of a tree. Read the poem.

Trees

I think that I shall never see
A poem lovely as a tree.

A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed
Against the earth's sweet flowing breast;

A tree that looks at God all day
And lifts her leafy arms to pray;

A tree that may in summer wear
A nest of robins in her hair;

Upon whose bosom snow has lain;
Who intimately lives with rain.

Poems are made by fools like me,
But only God can make a tree.

Joyce Kilmer

After reading the poem ask the students if anyone can explain what is unusual about the way that Kilmer describes a tree. (It sounds as if he is talking about a person, he refers to the tree as her.) Can anyone name the parts of a tree the way the poet has described them? If students have difficulty doing this you may wish to read the poem again, taking time to pause after each pair of lines for their responses.
As the students identify Kilmer's words for the tree parts, add these to the web on the board. It should be obvious that Kilmer has chosen to give a tree the qualities of a person, in this case, a woman. Tell the students that when a poet does this we call it personification. Explain that personification is giving the qualities of a person to other living and nonliving things. Write the word on the board so that the students can see the word person in personification.
Display the poem and read it again or ask student volunteers to read pairs of lines. Be sure that students understand the vocabulary (lain, bosom, intimately).
If possible, share other poems about trees where the poet has used personification such as "Windy Tree" by Aileen Fisher. Add the words used by these poets to your web. If you are not able to obtain other poems you may wish to ask the students to match the following body parts to the parts of a tree: feet, back or spine, legs, fingers, toes, shoulders, and chest.
Ask the students to think about how we could describe a tree as we would a person. A tree might hide squirrels in its (his/her) pocket, tremble as the wind blows across its (his/her) shoulders, decorate its (his/her) hair with blossoms, etc. Remind the students that many times we refer to the wind as whistling, or lifting objects; we say that ants march and that the rain beats
against our windows. To clarify how well the students understand, have volunteers tell in their own words what personification means.
As a closing to the lesson have the children look at the form of the poem. "Trees" is composed of stanzas containing two lines each. Ask the students if they recall what these are
called (couplets). Briefly review the rhyming words for each pair of lines.

Additional Activities
You may wish to engage the students in a personification activity. Name a plant, insect, or animal and have the students suggest words that would give human characteristics. For example:
flowers
tilt their faces to the sun
bend under the weight of a bee
push their heads out of the soil
sway in the breeze
dig their toes into the soil
frame their faces in petals
Students may enjoy illustrating phrases which could be displayed around a photograph or illustration of the topic. Echoes for the Eye: Poems to Celebrate Patterns in Nature is a wonderful source of examples.
There is a wealth of literature written about trees. Share a variety of poems and stories with students (see Suggested Books). Suggest that students may want to keep a "Tree Log" written from a tree's point of view. Typical entries could be "A Shady Story" (what takes place in the shade of the tree), "Branching Out" (all about the creatures who make their homes in trees), or "Barking Up the Wrong Tree" (problems trees encounter).

Third Grade - Literature - Native American Legends

Objectives
Listen to a Native American legend.
Describe the elements of the Native American oral tradition of storytelling.
Materials
One of the Suggested Books (see Additional Suggested Books also)

Suggested Books (that reference constellations)
Cohlene, Terri, written and adapted by. Quillworker: A Cheyenne Legend. New York: Watermill Press, 1990.
A Cheyenne legend of the stars, photographs and facts about the Cheyenne are included.
Esbensen, Barbara Juster. The Star Maiden: An Ojibway Tale. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1988.The Star Maiden wishes to visit earth; she tries several different forms before she finds the right one.
Goble, Paul. The Lost Children: the boys who were neglected. New York: Bradbury Press, 1993.
Story of the origin of the Pleiades.
________, Paul. Her Seven Brothers. New York: Bradbury Press, 1988.
Cheyenne story of a girl and her seven brothers who become the Big Dipper.
Rockwell, Anne, retold and illustrated by. The Dancing Stars: An Iroquois Legend. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1972.
Simple cartoon-like illustrations accompany this Iroquois story of the Pleiades.

Teacher Resource
Scholastic Integrated Units "Space" contains a play titled "How the Stars Came to be" (based on the Native American character Coyote), a reproducible worksheet called "Star to Star" and a wonderful poster of several constellations.

Teacher Background
This month Native Americans are studied in the history lessons and their contributions in art are recognized, likewise a study of their legends is included. The stories referenced above all tell about the creation of a constellation. If possible read several of these to your students so that they can see how the stories vary.
Be sure to emphasize the essential element of the oral tradition of storytelling is that the themes and ideas are passed down, not the specific words. Paul Goble says, "(these myths) are essential truths like the Scriptures." These Native American legends are the beliefs of a people not charming stories told to amuse.
As you read aloud the stories encourage your students to imagine that they are hearing the story as told by the storyteller. Ask them to think about how one person might have told it slightly different from another. Do not, however, ask your students to write a Native American story because in this culture the stories are sacred beliefs, not the products of an active imagination.
Students were introduced to the trickster Iktomi in Second Grade. The Iktomi stories were also told by storytellers but they were amusing tales and not the same as the legends.

Procedure
Select one of the Suggested Books and show the cover to your students. Ask them to consider what the story might be about given that particular title. Tell the students that many years ago when the stories were first told they didn't necessarily have titles because the storyteller would have begun telling the story to explain some particular thing (why there are certain constellations, how they were formed, etc.).
Explain that these first Native American stories were like the stories some people read in the Bible today. (If necessary, explain that the Bible is considered to be a book of truths by some people. The Bible is an important part of their religion.) Those first stories explained things that people didn't understand, they told about creation, the stars in the sky, the first people. They were considered to be the truth.
Tell the students to sit back and listen to the story and pretend that it is being told to explain something to them. Ask them to pay close attention to the story so they are able to tell what they have learned when the story is finished. Remind them to look at the illustrations and relate what they see and hear to what they are learning (and have learned) about Native Americans.
When you have finished reading the story ask the students to tell what they learned. If necessary, direct them by asking questions like these: Did the story tell why the sun rises each day? Did the story tell why a dog is man's best friend? Did the story tell how the Big Dipper came to be?
Finally, ask the students what Native Americans believed about their legends (that they were the truth). Ask how the stories were passed on (the ideas were passed on not the words). Ask: Could two different stories about the same event be told? (yes)
A list of Additional Suggested Books is included. Encourage the students to read some of these legends independently or you may wish to share others with the class. Do the students see any similarities in the stories that are told by a particular tribe? Do there seem to be more of a particular type of story told by one tribe?

Additional Suggested Books

Bierhorst, John. The Woman Who Fell from the Sky: The Iroquois Story of Creation. New York: William Morrow, 1993. Creation story tells of the woman who fell from the sky and her two sons, Flint and Sapling.
Bruchac, Joseph, retold by. The Great Ball Game: A Muskogee Story. New York: Dial, 1994. Why birds fly south and bats appear at sundown. Great collages by Susan L. Roth.
________, Joseph, retold by. The First Strawberries: A Cherokee Story. New York: Dial, 1993. The story of the first man and woman and how the first strawberries came to be.
Cohlene, Terri, written and adapted by. Ka-ha-si and the Loon: An Eskimo Legend. New York: Watermill Press, 1990. Wonderful story of Ka-ha-si who gains strength to rescue his people, includes photographs and information on the Eskimo people.
________, Terri, written and adapted by. Turquoise Boy: A Navajo Legend. New York: Watermill Press, 1990.Turquoise Boy searches for something to make his people's lives easier, includes photographs and information on the Navajo people.
Hausman, Gerald. Eagle Boy: A Traditional Navajo Legend. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
Eagle Boy is tricked by Coyote but later learns of the eagle's kindness.
 Martin, Rafe. The Boy Who Lived with the Seals. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1993.
Chinook Indian tale of a boy who disappears only to be found living with the seals. After being reunited with his parents he is still drawn to the sea and eventually returns there.
McDermott, Gerald. Arrow to the Sun: A Pueblo Indian Tale. New York: Viking Press, 1974. Pueblo story tells how the spirit of the Lord of the Sun came to Earth. Vibrant colors!
________, Gerald. Raven: A Trickster Tale from the Pacific Northwest. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993. Raven goes to find the sun.
Rodanas, Kristina, retold and illustrated by. The Dragonfly's Tale. New York: Clarion, 1991.
A toy dragonfly made from a cornstalk and two children help their village win the blessing of the Corn Maiden. Beautiful illustrations highlight this Zuni Indian tale.
________, Kristina, adapted and illustrated by. Dance of the Sacred Circle: A Native American Tale. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1994.
Blackfoot legend of a boy who asks the Great Chief in the Sky to help his tribe find buffalo. He is rewarded with a new creation--the first horse. Wonderful illustrations.
Rosen, Michael, retold by. Crow and Hawk: A Traditional Pueblo Indian Story. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1995.
This tale of responsibility was originally told by an elderly storyteller of the Cochiti Pueblo near Santa Fe, New Mexico. Beautiful cut paper illustrations are reminiscent of Matisse.
San Souci, Robert. Song of Sedna. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981.
Eskimo legend of a girl who is changed into the goddess of the sea.
Sloat, Terri, retold and illustrated by. The Eye of the Needle. New York: Dutton Children's Books, 1990. Colorful illustrations highlight this Yupik tale told by Betty Huffman, about an Eskimo boy with a very large appetite.
Van Laan, Nancy. In a Circle Long Ago: A Treasury of Native Lore From North America. New York: Apple Soup Books, 1995.
Wonderful collection of stories and poems beautifully illustrated; includes a useful appendix and background information.
________, Nancy. Buffalo Dance: A Blackfoot Legend. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1993.
Legend that explains the Buffalo Dance that is performed prior to the hunt. Beatriz Vidal's illustrations include border designs and symbols to represent the text.

Bibliography

Behn, Harry. Trees: A Poem by Harry Behn. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1992.(0-8050-1926-X)
Bierhorst, John. The Woman Who Fell from the Sky: The Iroquois Story of Creation. New York: William Morrow, 1993. (0-688-10681-1)
Bruchac, Joseph, retold by. The Great Ball Game: A Muskogee Story. New York: Dial, 1994.(0-8037-1540-4)
________, Joseph, retold by. The First Strawberries: A Cherokee Story. New York: Dial, 1993.(0-8037-1332-0)
Cohlene, Terri, written and adapted by. Ka-ha-si and the Loon: An Eskimo Legend. New York: Watermill Press, 1990. (0-8167-2359-1)
________, Terri, written and adapted by. Quillworker: A Cheyenne Legend. New York: Watermill Press, 1990. (086593-004 X)
________, Terri, written and adapted by. Turquoise Boy: A Navajo Legend. New York: Watermill Press, 1990. (0-8167-2369-5)
*deRegniers, Beatrice Schenk. Sing a Song of Popcorn. New York: Scholastic, 1988.(0-590-43974-X)
Esbensen, Barbara Juster. Echoes for the Eye: Poems to Celebrate Patterns in Nature. New York: HarperCollins, 1996. (0-06-024399-6)
________, Barbara Juster. The Star Maiden: An Ojibway Tale. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1988. (0-316-24951-3)
*Ferris, Helen, ed. Favorite Poems Old and New. New York: Doubleday, 1957.
Fraser, Betty. First Things First. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.
Goble, Paul. The Lost Children: the boys who were neglected. New York: Bradbury Press, 1993.(0-02-736555-7)
________, Paul. Her Seven Brothers. New York: Bradbury Press, 1988. (0-02-737960-4)
Hausman, Gerald. Eagle Boy: A Traditional Navajo Legend. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.(0-06-021101-6)
Hirsch, E.D., ed. What Your Third Grader Needs to Know. New York: Dell, 1992. (0-385-31257-1)
Hopkins, Lee Bennett, selected by. Crickets and Bullfrogs and Whispers of Thunder: Poems and Pictures by Harry Behn. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. (0-15-220885-2)
Hudson, Cheryl and Wade, compiled by. Kids' Book of Wisdom: Quotes from the African American Tradition. East Orange, NJ: Just Us Books, 1996. (0-940975-61-0)
Kelen, Emery, compiled by. Proverbs of Many Nations. New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepherd, 1966.
*Larrick, Nancy, ed. Piping Down the Valleys Wild. New York: Delacorte, 1968. (0385294298)
Martin, Rafe. The Boy Who Lived with the Seals. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1993.
(0-399-22413-0)
McDermott, Gerald. Arrow to the Sun: A Pueblo Indian Tale. New York: Viking Press, 1974. (0-670-13369-8)
________, Gerald. Raven: A Trickster Tale from the Pacific Northwest. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993. (0-15-265661-8)
Merriam, Eve. Blackberry Ink. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1985. (0-688-04151-5)

Bibliography
________, Eve. You be Good and I'll be Night: Jump-on-the-Bed Poems. New York: William Morris, 1988. (0-688-06743-3)
Rockwell, Anne, retold and illustrated by. The Dancing Stars: An Iroquois Legend. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1972. (0-690-23177-6)
Rodanas, Kristina, retold and illustrated by. The Dragonfly's Tale. New York: Clarion, 1991.
(0-395-57003-4)
________, Kristina, adapted and illustrated by. Dance of the Sacred Circle: A Native American Tale. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1994. (0-316-75358-0)
Rosen, Michael, retold by. Crow and Hawk: A Traditional Pueblo Indian Story. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1995. (0-15-200257-X)
San Souci, Robert. Song of Sedna. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981. (0-385-15867-X)
Silverstein, Shel. The Giving Tree. New York: Harper, 1964.(0060256656)
Sloat, Terri, retold and illustrated by. The Eye of the Needle. New York: Dutton Children's Books, 1990. (0-525-44623-0)
Van Laan, Nancy. Buffalo Dance: A Blackfoot Legend. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1993.
(0-316-89728-0)
________, Nancy. In a Circle Long Ago: A Treasury of Native Lore From North America. New York: Apple Soup Books, 1995. (0-679-95807-X)
Vavoni, Marvin. Great Expressions. New York: William Morrow, 1989. (0-688-07990-3)
Young, James. A Million Chameleons. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1990. (0-316-97129-4)

Teacher Reference
Larrick, Nancy. Let's Do a Poem: Introducing Poetry to Children Through Listening, Singing, Chanting, Impromptu, Choral Reading, Body Movement, Dance, and Dramatization. New York: Delacorte Press, 1991. (0-385-30292-4)
Moore, Jo Ellen and Joy Evans. Writing Poetry with Children: Teacher Resource Book. Monterey: EVAN-MOOR, 1988. (1-55799-129-4)
Morris, William and Mary. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. New York: Harper & Row, 1977, 1988. (0-06-015862-X)

*Required or strongly recommended in lessons