Third Grade - American History - Lesson 1 - Early Native Americans

Objectives
Locate on a globe where the land bridge was.
Describe the progression of nomadic people into North America.

Suggested Books
Student Titles - These titles are appropriate for independent reading at the Third Grade level.
Ernst, Kathryn F. Indians: The First Americans. New York: Franklin Watts, 1979.
This book is a bit outdated, but the first 29 pages of the book give a clear narrative of the Ice Age, how the first people came to North America, and how the first Americans lived.
Watson, Jane Werner. Tribes of North America: The First Americans. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980.

Read Aloud
Maestro, Betsy and Giulio. The Discovery of the Americas. New York: Scholastic, 1992.

Teacher Reference
Asikinack, Bill and Kate Scarborough. Exploration Into North America. Parsippany, NJ: New Discovery Books, 1996.
Bancroft-Hunt, Norman. North American Indians. Philadelphia, PA: Courage Books, 1992.
This book is an adult reference book, but contains beautiful photographs of Native American life and artifacts.

Teacher Note:

This unit begins with a review of material covered in First Grade lessons 1-3. You may wish to refer back to those lessons to review the content covered regarding the Ice Age, nomads and hunters, the land bridge, and the eventual spread of peoples across the continents of North and South America.
 
 

Materials

Globe

Classroom size map of North America
 
 

Procedure

Ask the students if they can tell you who Christopher Columbus was? (the man who discovered North America, he was an explorer, etc.) Tell the students that although we say that Christopher Columbus "discovered" the New World in 1492, people had been living in North America for thousands of years before Columbus landed in North America. Explain that because Christopher Columbus had been on his way to the Indies near China, when he arrived in America he called the people who lived there Indians. Tell the students that because we now know that Columbus made a mistake and wasn't in Asia, the early people who lived in North America were Native Americans and not Indians.

Display a globe. Have students come up to the globe and point to the continents of Asia

and North America. Point out to the students that the body of water between Asia and North America is called the Bering Strait. Explain to the students that although we now have the water called the Bering Strait separating the continent of Asia from the continent of North America, there was once a bridge of land and ice between the two continents. People and animals walked across the "Abridge" and came to the continent of North America. Show the students on the globe where the bridge was located between Asia and North America.

Relate the following information to the students:

Many thousands of years ago, the earth did not look the way it does today. (Point to the globe to show the following.) Instead of the earth being covered with land and water in the same way it is now, a long time ago the northernmost part of North America, Europe, and Asia was covered in ice. Imagine having ice and snow as far as the eye could see, sort of like a giant skating rink where the ice was so thick that people and animals could walk on it without being afraid of falling through. We often refer to this time as the Ice Age. The hunters who lived during the Ice Age were nomads meaning they didn't live in one place; instead they followed the animals that they hunted for food and clothing.

The hunters lived mostly in caves or made shelters out of animal skins that they were able to take apart and move. As the animals began to move in search of food, the hunters followed. Some of the animals crossed the bridge from Asia and entered North America and as they did so the hunters followed. After a long time, the bridge disappeared because as the climate began to get warmer, the ice began to melt, and water covered the land bridge. People and animals were no longer able to travel from one continent to the other on foot. These first American hunters eventually spread out over the North and South American continents.

As the climate became warmer in North America, the way the first Americans lived also changed. The large animals that the nomads hunted died out, either because the hunters killed too many of them or because they couldn't live in the warmer climate. The wandering hunters, or nomads, had to find new kinds of food, so they hunted smaller animals, fished, and gathered fruits. They stopped moving from place to place and built small, permanent homes. After a while they began to plant their own food and became farmers. The groups they formed are called tribes. The different tribes spoke different languages and had different ways of life.

Tell the students that two groups of the early Native Americans that lived in North America were the Inuit (IN-yooit) and the Anasazi (an-nuh-SAH-zee). Write the names of the two groups on the board. Show the students on a map of North America where these two groups lived. (Alaska and the southwestern United States) Ask: What would be different about the two places where these people lived? (cold and lots of snow and ice where the Inuit live; warm, hot, dry, and desertlike where the Anasazi live) Discuss with the students how the climate would affect the way the two groups lived--the foods they ate, the houses they lived in, the clothes they wore, etc.
 
 

Additional Activity

 Materials

Large pan, clay, water, ice

 Procedure

You may wish to perform the following demonstration for the class to give them a better idea of how the land bridge that once existed between Asia and North America is no longer present. The demonstration shows how melting ice caused the water level of the ocean to rise and cover the land bridge. Using clay, create a model of two areas of land connected by a shallow strip of land (the land bridge). Add water, keeping the land strip exposed. Next, add a layer of ice cubes over much of the land and water. Have the students check and note the changes they observe every few minutes as the ice begins to melt. The water level will rise, eventually submerging the land strip.

Third Grade - American History - Lesson 2 - The Inuit and the Anasazi

 Objectives
Become familiar with Inuit and Anasazi cultures.
Compare Inuit and Anasazi cultures.
Locate the area in North America where the Inuit lived.

 Suggested Books (The suggested books with an asterisk next to them contain good descriptions of Inuit and/or Anasazi culture and the environment in which they lived.)

Student Titles
Cohlene, Terri. Ka-ha-si and the Loon: An Eskimo Legend. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corp., 1990.
Lyon, George Ella. Dreamplace. New York: Orchard Books, 1993.
Teri, Sloat. The Eye of the Needle. New York: Dutton, 1990.
*Van Laan, Nancy. In a Circle Long Ago: A Treasury of Native Lore From North America. New York: Knopf, 1995.
A wonderful collection of poems and stories from North American Native American tribes.
* Warren, Scott. Cities in the Sand: The Ancient Civilizations of the Southwest. San Francisco: Chronicle, 1992.

This book contains a chapter on the Anasazi with color photographs of cliff dwellings.

Teacher Reference
Ayer, Eleanor H. The Anasazi. New York: Walker & Comp., 1993.
*Ciment, James. Encyclopedia of the North American Indian. New York: Scholastic, 1996.
*Hakim, Joy. A History of US: The First Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Hahn, Elizabeth. The Inuit. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke, 1990.
Liptak, Karen. Indians of the Southwest. New York: Facts on File, 1991.
Includes clear, color photographs of the Southwest and the Anasazi dwellings.
Muench, David and Donald Pike. Anasazi: Ancient People of the Rock. Palo-Alto, CA: American West Publishing, 1974.
An adult reference book with large, color photographs of Anasazi cliff dwellings and artifacts.
Newman, Shirlee P. The Inuits. New York: Franklin Watts, 1991.

Web Site
www.mesaverde.com
This site tells the history and shows pictures of Anasazi ruins that were found in Mesa Verde, Colorado.

Teacher Background
The Inuit are one of the earliest groups of people to settle in North America. They settled in the northern part of North America in an area that is known today as Alaska. The environment is a very difficult one in which to live. It is winter for 10 months of the year.

Although many people used to and still do call the Inuit Eskimos, these people refer to themselves as Inuit, which means "the people." The word Eskimo means "eater of raw meat" and although out of necessity the Inuit did sometimes eat raw meat, they also cooked the meat they ate. When the Inuit hunted in the winter and had to travel, they built temporary houses out of ice and snow blocks. In the summer, they lived in homes made out of animal skins stretched across animal bones for support.

The Inuit that lived by the coast fished and hunted whales, seals, walrus. Those that lived inland hunted caribou and musk ox. The animals they hunted were not killed as a food source only, the Inuit also used the animal's hide to make clothing, the bones were used to carve into tools or pieces of art, the animal fat or blubber was melted into oil which was used as a fuel to heat a home or to cook food.

In contrast, another group of early peoples, the Anasazi, settled in the southwestern United States in the four corners area of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. This somewhat mountainous area is hot and dry by day and cold at night. Adapting to this area, some Anasazi built their homes on mesas and others built their homes on cliffs in the mountains. Their homes were multistory apartments made of stones.

Even though there is little rainfall in the area where they lived, the Anasazi were able to farm corn, squash, and beans. Although the Anasazi primarily supported themselves by farming, they also hunted animals such as rabbit, deer, and elk. The meat of the animals was eaten and the hides were used for clothing. The Anasazi also wove baskets and made clay pottery, which they decorated with intricate designs.

Materials
Globe
Map of the United States

Teacher Note

Students may recall facts about Alaska and Eskimos from RMIV, Lessons 12, 17, 23. If so, it will be helpful for them to review what they know about Alaska, but be sure to tell the students that some of the facts in RMIV refer to present day Eskimos and in this lesson they will be learning about early peoples who lived a very long time ago.

 Procedure

Review with the students that the first people to come to North America crossed a land bridge that connected Asia to North America. Using a globe, have a student point out the area where the land bridge once was. Explain that some of the early people remained in the northern part of the continent and others moved to the south. Remind the students that in their last lesson, they learned the names of two of the groups of early people that settled in different areas of what is today the United States: the Anasazi and the Inuit. Tell the class the Inuit lived in the northern part of the United States and the Anasazi lived in the southwestern part of the United States. Explain to the students that descendants or relatives of both of these groups still live in the United States.

Ask: Can someone point to the area where the first people came when they crossed the land bridge into North America? (should point to Alaska) What state is located there now?

(Alaska). Ask: What are some facts you know about Alaska? (Accept facts that apply to Alaska: It is cold there; Seals and polar bears live in Alaska; Eskimos live in Alaska; etc.) Tell the students that this is the area where the Inuit settled and their descendants or distant relatives still live there today. Explain that they are known by many people as Eskimos, but call themselves "Inuit," which in their language means "the people".

Tell the students the Anasazi settled in a place that was very different from where the Inuit live. Have a student come up to the U.S. map and find the states of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah. Explain that this is the southwestern part of the United States where the Anasazi lived. Ask: What do we know about this southern area of the United States? (it is hot, there are deserts) Explain that because the places they lived were so very different, the way each group lived was very different.

Explain to the students that history is full of the problems people encountered and the solutions they created or discovered to solve their problems. One example of this is the way people adapt to their environment to meet their basic needs. Tell the students that although the Inuit and the Anasazi lived in very different areas of the country, they had a similar problem. The areas of the country in which they both lived were difficult areas to farm because of the harsh climates.

Read descriptions of both the Inuit and Anasazi ways of life (see Suggested Books).

Draw a Venn diagram on the board. Label one circle The Inuit and the other The Anasazi.

In the area that is shared by both circles, write the problems that the two groups shared (harsh climates and difficult land to farm). In the circles write the ways that each group adapted to their environment and therefore solved the problem of meeting their basic needs. (For example, how did they provide food, shelter, and clothing for themselves and their families.) Below you will find examples of each group's solutions.
 

 

Inuit


 
 

Food

- Fished 

- Hunted caribou, walrus, polar bears, whales, birds, seals
 
 

Shelter

- Permanent homes built out of animal skins stretched across stone, animal bones or stone and dirt

- Temporary homes built out of snow and ice
 
 

 Clothing

- Hide from animals they hunted 


 

Anasazi


 
 

Food

- Farmed squash, corn, beans

- Hunted deer, rabbits, squirrels

- Gathered nuts, berries
 
 

Shelter

- Cliff dwellings (homes made of clay and built on the side of a mountain)

- Homes called pithouses built on top of a mesa, built partially below the ground with walls supported by wood poles and made of clay

 Clothing

- Hide from animals they hunted


 

Third Grade - American History - Lesson 3 - Native Americans in the Southwest

 Objectives
Research and report on a southwestern Native American tribe.
Compare and contrast the daily life and customs of farmers to those of hunter-gatherers.

Suggested Books

Student Titles
Ancoma, George. Earth Daughter: Alicia of Acoma Pueblo. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
This non-fiction book shows the daily life of a present-day Pueblo Indian girl, Alicia, and her family. This book is illustrated with beautiful color photographs.

Behrens, June. Powwow. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983.
This non-fiction book brings a Native American powwow alive with clear color photographs and simple text.

Begay, Shonto. Ma'ii and Cousin Horned Toad. New York: Scholastic, 1992.
A Navajo story.

Cohlene, Terri. Turquoise Boy: A Navajo Legend. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corp., 1990.
The book contains a Navajo legend with a separate section at the end that gives non- fictional information about the Navajo.

Franklin, Kristine L. The Shepherd Boy. New York: Atheneum, 1994.

Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane. Pueblo Storyteller. New York: Scholastic, 1991.

Like Earth Daughter listed above, this book follows a present-day Pueblo Indian girl named April and her family. The book is more text intensive, but not more difficult to read, and contains color photographs.

Krensky, Stephen. Children of the Earth and Sky. New York: Scholastic, 1991.
This book contains stories about Native American children from five tribes.

Miles, Miska. Annie and the Old One. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971.
A Navajo story.

Rosen, Michael. Crow and Hawk. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1995.
This vibrantly illustrated book tells a traditional Pueblo Indian story.

Student Reference
McKissack, Patricia. The Apache: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1984.
Osinski, Alice. The Navajo: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987.
Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk. The Apaches: A First Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1997.
________. The Hopis: A First Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1995.
________. The Navajos: A First Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1993.
Tomchek, Ann Heinrichs. The Hopi: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987.

Teacher Reference
Doherty, Craig A. and Katherine M. Doherty. The Apaches and Navajos. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993.
________. The Zunis. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993.
Liptak, Karen. Indians of the Southwest. New York: Facts on File, 1991.
Powell, Suzanne. The Pueblos. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993.
Westridge Young Writers Workshop. Kids Explore the Heritage of Western Native Americans. Santa Fe, New Mexico: John Muir Publications, 1995.
Wood, Leigh. The Navajo Indians. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

Teacher Resources
Moore, Helen H. and Carmen R. Sorvilo. Pyramids to Pueblos: 15 Pop-up Models for Students to Make. New York: Scholastic, 1995.
This resource contains a pattern to make a pop-up pueblo and directions to make Anasazi-style pottery.

Materials
Student reference books about the Navajo, the Apache, the Hopi, and the Zuni
If you do not have relevant books in your classroom or school library, the Suggested Books above, as well as others, can be found in the Baltimore County or Baltimore City libraries.
1 per pair
Worksheets (included)

Teacher Note
Southwest Indians are covered in RMVI Lessons 14-20.

Procedure
Review with the students that early people who came to America settled in various areas of North America. Ask: Where did the early people come to North America from? (Asia) How did they get from Asia to North America? (across a land bridge) Ask: What are the names of the two groups of early people about which we have already learned? (the Inuit and the Anasazi) Call on two volunteers to come up to a map of North America and point to the areas in which both groups lived.

Call on a student to name the states or the part of the United States where the Anasazi lived (New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Utah or the southwestern United States). Explain to the students that the tribes that now exist in the southwest can be basically divided into two groups: the farmers and the hunter-gatherers. Write the names of the two groups on the board. The farmers are represented by the Hopi and Zuni tribes and the hunter-gatherers are represented by the Navajo and Apache. Write the names of the tribes under the corresponding group name. Explain to the students that since farmers raise crops for their food and the hunter-gatherers go out and find their food, the two groups have very different needs. Ask the students to name the needs of a farmer and compare them to what they think would be the needs of a hunter-gatherer. Tell the students they are going to take on the role of anthropologists. Explain that an anthropologist is a person who studies the culture, customs, and development of groups of people. Tell the students that they are going to be anthropologists that study farmers, the Zuni or the Hopi; or hunter-gatherers, the Navajo or the Apache. Tell the students that they will be looking for answers to the following questions: What type of habitat did they live in? What type of houses did they live in? What type of clothing did they wear? What are the different tools and/or weapons each group needed? What are the foods they ate? How did they get their food? What beliefs did they have or what ceremonies were important in their lives?

Give each pair a worksheet, half the class should be researching the farmers and the other half should be researching the hunter-gatherers. Have the pairs record their results to be shared with the rest of the class--one person being the recorder and one person being the reporter.

After discussing the pairs' findings, explain that the Native American's daily life and customs serve as excellent examples of how the environment in which people live shapes their lives. Tell the students that there are many Native Americans that still live in the southwestern United States and are distant relatives of the Hopi, Zuni, Navajo, and Apache that lived long ago. You may wish to read Earth Daughter: Alicia of Acoma Pueblo by George Ancona, which tells of a modern-day Pueblo Indian girl.

Additional Activity

Note: This activity could be done as a group or adapted as an independent activity.

Read the following poem about the Hopi aloud to the students. Ask the students to listen carefully to the words and think about the pictures they bring to mind. Tell the students that when pictures come to mind from things we read or hear we call that visualization. Ask the students to brainstorm images they visualized from the poem. Write the descriptions on the board. Have the students draw an illustration for the poem using a combination of the images they got from the poem.

Hopi by M. J. Wheeler from First Came the Indians. New York: Atheneum, 1983.
 

Third Grade - American History - Lesson 3 - Native Americans in the Southwest

Name ___________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

Directions: You and your partner are going to be anthropologists for this activity. An anthropologist is a person who studies the culture, customs, and development of groups of people. Your task is to research the group you are assigned and record the information you find to answer the following questions.
 
 
 
 

1. What is the name of the tribe you are going to study? ________________________________
 
 
 
 

2. Are they hunter/gatherers or farmers? ____________________________________________
 
 
 
 

3. What type of habitat did they live in? _____________________________________________
 
 
 
 

4. What were their houses like? __________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

5. What type of clothing did they wear? ____________________________________________
 
 
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

6. What were the foods they ate? __________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 

7. How did they get their food?____________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

_____________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 
 
 

8. What tools and/or weapons did they use?
 
 
 
 

__________________________________________
 
 
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

9. What were their religious beliefs and/or what kinds of ceremonies did they perform?
 
 
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________
 
 

Third Grade - American History - Lesson 4 - Woodland Indians

Objectives
Recognize the Cherokee, Seminole, Powhatan, Delaware, Susquehanna, Mohican, and Iroquois as tribes that lived in the eastern woodlands.
Identify the culture associated with the Eastern Woodland tribes.
Locate on a U. S. Map the area that was inhabited by the Seminole, Cherokee, and Iroquois.

Suggested Books - The asterisked books contain illustrations or pictures of Native American homes.
Student Titles
* Bains, Rae. Indians of the Eastern Woodlands. Mahwah, NJ: Troll, 1985.
Bruchac, Joseph. The First Strawberries: A Cherokee Story. New York: Dial, 1993.
Cohlene, Terri. Dancing Drum: A Cherokee Legend. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corp., 1990.
The book contains a Cherokee legend with a separate section at the end that gives non- fictional information about the Cherokee.
Haley, Gail E. Two Bad Boys: A Very Old Cherokee Tale. New York: Dutton, 1996.
Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane. Cherokee Summer. New York: Holiday House, 1993.
The non-fiction account of a present-day Cherokee girl accompanied by beautiful photographs.
Krensky, Stephen. Children of the Earth and Sky. New York: Scholastic, 1991.
A collection of stories about Native American children from five different tribes.
* Lepthien, Emilie U. The Cherokee: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985.(0-516-01938-4)
* ________. The Seminole: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985.
* Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk. The Cherokees: A First Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1996.
* ________. The Iroquois: A First American Book. New York: Holiday House, 1995.
* ________. The Seminoles: A First American Book. New York: Holiday House, 1994.
Turcotte, Mark. Songs of Our Ancestors: Poems about Native Americans. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995.
Contains poems about the Iroquois Confederacy and the Seminole Indians.

Teacher Reference
* Andryszewski, Tricia. The Seminoles. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1995.
Ciment, James. Encyclopedia of the North American Indian. New York: Scholastic, 1996.
* Haslam, Andrew and Alexandra Parsons. Make it Work!: North American Indians. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995.
This book contains nice photographed models of Native American homes.
* Koslow, Philip. The Seminole Indians. New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1994.
Landau, Elaine. The Cherokees. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.
Lee, Martin. The Seminoles. New York: Franklin Watts, 1989.
Sherrow, Victoria. The Iroquois Indians. New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1992.
Siegel, Beatrice. Indians of the Northeast Woodlands. New York: Walker and Comp., 1992.

Materials
U. S. map ditto--make into an overhead transparency and make a copy for each student
Native American Homes worksheet--1 per student

Teacher Note

If you are interested in presenting information about Native Americans that lived in Maryland to your class the following are local resources.

The Maryland Historical Society
201 W. Monument St.
Baltimore, MD 21201
(410) 685-3750 ext. 337

The MHS has a Teacher Kit and Guide called Forgotten Folk: Maryland Indians that they lend to teachers for their classroom.

Kirk Dryer at Oregon Ridge

Keith Harrison at the Irvine Nature Center (410) 484-2413

Procedure

Tell the students that today they are going to move from the southwestern part of the United States to the east coast of the United States to learn about the Native American tribes that lived in that area. Point to a U. S. map and show the area about which the students will be learning. The Eastern Woodlands is the area that stretches along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida and west to the Mississippi River. Point out the Mississippi River on the map. Ask the students to notice how the Mississippi River almost acts as a line that marks off the eastern part of the United States. Have a student come up and point to the Atlantic Ocean.

Tell the students that a long time ago when Native Americans lived in the Eastern Woodlands there were forests that stretched along the Atlantic coast. Explain that the Native Americans who lived in this area were surrounded by natural resources--animals and birds lived in the forests, fish lived in the lakes and rivers, trees grew all around them. Tell the students that because of this abundance of natural resources, Native Americans were able to meet their basic needs--shelter, clothing, and food--with what existed in the places they lived.

Starting in the northeast region and working your way south, point to the areas on a U.S. map that were inhabited by the following tribes: the Iroquois Confederacy--southwest New York; Mohican--eastern New York; the Delaware--Delaware; the Susquehanna--Pennsylvania and New Jersey; the Powhatan--Virginia; the Cherokee Confederacy--(the southeast) North Carolina Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, and Georgia; the Seminole--Florida.

Tell the students that the habitats in which these tribes lived were very different and therefore the clothing they wore, the houses they lived in, the crops they raised, and the animals they hunted were also sometimes different. Display the overhead transparency of the U. S. Label the areas where the Cherokee, Iroquois, and Seminole lived by writing the tribes name on the area in which they lived. Ask: What do we know about the general temperature difference between Florida in the south where the Seminole lived and New York in the north where the Iroquois lived. (It is generally warmer in Florida.) Explain to the students that because it is generally much warmer in Florida than it is in New York, the Seminole wore cotton garments that were cooler and they lived in houses that did not have walls, called chickees. Show the students a picture of a chickee. The chickees had thatched roofs made with palm leaves and were built on stilts to protect the home from the marshy lands and nearby rivers where the Seminole lived.

Tell the students that in contrast the Iroquois lived in long, narrow houses made out of wood, called longhouses. Show the students a picture of a longhouse. Made from poles with bark or wood coverings, the longhouse did not have windows, only holes in the roof under which fires could be built to allow for the smoke to escape. Explain that the roof was sometimes rounded or sometimes pitched and many families lived in each longhouse.

Explain to the students that like the Iroquois, the Cherokee also had more than one family, usually relatives, living in one house. Tell the students that the Cherokee's homes were different because they had different summer and winter dwellings. Show the students pictures of Cherokee houses. Explain that in the summer, they lived in rectangular homes that were made of logs covered with clay plaster inside and out, and pitched roofs made of tree bark. In the winter they lived in round homes with cone-shaped thatched roofs.

Give each student a Native American Homes worksheet. Tell the students that at the bottom of the map they will find pictures representing the houses of the Iroquois, Cherokee, and Seminole. Call on students to name the tribe to which each house belongs. Point out the map key on the left side of the worksheet. Tell the students that a map key usually contains symbols and the information the symbols represent on a map. Ask the students to complete the map key by drawing a picture of one of the houses shown next to the appropriate tribe. Have the students show on the map where the Iroquois, Cherokee, and Seminole lived by drawing the appropriate house in the area where each tribe lived.

Additional Activity

Have the students draw pictures of longhouses and chickees. After they have completed their pictures, have the students write about the home, telling what group lived in it, what materials were used to build it, and the advantages of the way it was designed and built.

Bibliography

Student Titles

Ancoma, George. Earth Daughter: Alicia of Acoma Pueblo. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. (0-689-80322-2)
Bains, Rae. Indians of the Eastern Woodlands. Mahwah, NJ: Troll, 1985.(0-8167-0118-0)
Behrens, June. Powwow. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1983. (0-516-42387-8)
Begay, Shonto. Ma'ii and Cousin Horned Toad. New York: Scholastic, 1992. (0-590-45390-4)
Bruchac, Joseph. The First Strawberries: A Cherokee Story. New York: Dial, 1993.(0-8037-1332-0)
Cohlene, Terri. Dancing Drum: A Cherokee Legend. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corp., 1990. (0-8167-2362-1)
________. Ka-ha-si and the Loon: An Eskimo Legend. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corp., 1990. (0-8167-2359-1)
________. Turquoise Boy: A Navajo Legend. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corp., 1990. (0-8167-2360-5)
Ernst, Kathryn F. Indians: The First Americans. New York: Franklin Watts, 1979. (0-531-02273-0)
Franklin, Kristine L. The Shepherd Boy. New York: Atheneum, 1994. (0-689-31809-X)
Haley, Gail E. Two Bad Boys: A Very Old Cherokee Tale. New York: Dutton, 1996. (0-525-45311-3)
Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane. Cherokee Summer. New York: Holiday House, 1993.
________. Pueblo Storyteller. New York: Scholastic, 1991. (0-590-46264-4)
Krensky, Stephen. Children of the Earth and Sky. New York: Scholastic, 1991. (0-590-42853-5)
Lepthien, Emilie U. The Cherokee: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985.(0-516-01938-4)
________. The Seminole: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1985. (0-516-01941-4)
Lyon, George Ella. Dreamplace. New York: Orchard Books, 1993. (0-531-08616-X)
McKissack, Patricia. The Apache: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1984.(0-516-01925-2)
Miles, Miska. Annie and the Old One. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971.
Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk. The Apaches: A First Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1997. (0-8234-1287-3)
________. The Cherokees: A First Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1996.(0-8234-1214-8)
________. The Hopis: A First Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1995. (0-8234-1194-X)
________. The Iroquois: A First American Book. New York: Holiday House, 1995.(0-8234-1163-X)
________. The Seminoles: A First American Book. New York: Holiday House, 1994.(0-8234-1112-5)
Teri, Sloat. The Eye of the Needle. New York: Dutton, 1990.
Turcotte, Mark. Songs of Our Ancestors: Poems about Native Americans. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995. (0-516-45154-5)
Van Laan, Nancy. In a Circle Long Ago: A Treasury of Native Lore From North America. New York: Knopf, 1995. (0-679-85807-5)
Watson, Jane Werner. Tribes of North America: The First Americans. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980. (0-394-84194-8)
Warren, Scott. Cities in the Sand: The Ancient Civilizations fo the Southwest. San Francisco: Chronicle, 1992. (0-8118-0012-1)

Student Reference
Osinski, Alice. The Navajo: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987. (0-516-01236-3)
Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk. The Navajos: A First Americans Book. New York: Holiday House, 1993. (0-516-01236-3)
Tomchek, Ann Heinrichs. The Hopi: A New True Book. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1987. (0-516-01234-7)

Read Aloud
Maestro, Betsy and Giulio. The Discovery of the Americas. New York: Scholastic, 1992. (0-590-46515-5)

Teacher Reference
Asikinack, Bill and Kate Scarborough. Exploration Into North America. Parsippany, NJ: New Discovery Books, 1996. (0-02-718086-7)
Ayer, Eleanor H. The Anasazi. New York: Walker & Comp., 1993. (0-8027-8185-3)
Bancroft-Hunt, Norman. North American Indians. Philadelphia, PA: Courage Books, 1992.(1-56138-123-3)
Ciment, James. Encyclopedia of the North American Indian. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (0-590-22791-2)
Doherty, Craig A. and Katherine M. Doherty. The Apaches and Navajos. (0-531-10743-4)
________. The Zunis. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993. (0-531-20157-0)
Hahn, Elizabeth. The Inuit. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke, 1990. (0-86625-386-6)
Hakim, Joy. A History of US: The First Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.(0-669-36832-6)
Haslam, Andrew and Alexandra Parsons. Make it Work!: North American Indians. New York: Thomson Learning, 1995. (56847-137-8)
Koslow, Philip. The Seminole Indians. New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1994. (0-7910-1672-2)
Landau, Elaine. The Cherokees. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992. (0531-15635-4)
Lee, Martin. The Seminoles. New York: Franklin Watts, 1989. (0-531-10752-3)
Liptak, Karen. Indians of the Southwest. New York: Facts on File, 1991. (0-8160-2385-9)
Muench, David and Donald Pike. Anasazi: Ancient People of the Rock. Palo-Alto, CA: American West Publishing, 1974. (0-910118-49-0)
Newman, Shirlee P. The Inuits. New York: Franklin Watts, 1991. (0-531-20073-6)
Powell, Suzanne. The Pueblos. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993. (0-531-20068-X)
Sherrow, Victoria. The Iroquois Indians. New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1992. (0-7910-1655-2)
Siegel, Beatrice. Indians of the Northeast Woodlands. New York: Walker and Comp., 1992.(0-8027-8157-8)
Westridge Young Writers Workshop. Kids Explore the Heritage of Western Native Americans. Santa Fe, New Mexico: John Muir Publications, 1995. (1-56261-189-5)
Wood, Leigh. The Navajo Indians. New York: Chelsea House, 1991. (0-7910-1651-X)

Teacher Resources
Moore, Helen H. and Carmen R. Sorvilo. Pyramids to Pueblos: 15 Pop-up Models for Students to Make. New York: Scholastic, 1995. (0-590-67481-1)