BCP DRAFT SCI 38

First Grade - Science - Lesson 27 - The Sun and Moon

Objectives

Identify the sun as a source of energy, light, and heat.

Name the phases of the moon.

Suggested Books

Read Alouds

Branley, Franklyn M. The Moon Seems to Change. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987.

________. The Sun: Our Nearest Star. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1988.

Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus Lost in the Solar System. New York: Scholastic, 1990.

Gaffney, Timothy R. Grandpa Takes Me to the Moon. New York: Tambourine Books, 1996.

The following books by Seymour Simon contain excellent photographs and illustrations to show the children:

Simon, Seymour. The Moon. New York: William Morrow, 1984.

________. Our Solar System. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

________. The Sun. New York: William Morrow, 1986.

Teacher Reference

Stoit, Carol. I Wonder Why Stars Twinkle and Other Questions About Space. New York: Kingfisher, 1993.

Students may write to NASA to receive current information about space projects.

NASA Educational Briefs

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Washington, DC 20546

Materials

Flashlight

Construction paper

Overhead projector

Per child

Phases of the moon ditto

Black construction paper

White chalk

Scissors

Glue

Procedure

Ask the children: What are some things that provide light in our lives? (candles, electric bulbs, the sun, the moon) Say: Two natural lights in our world are the sun and the moon. Tell the children that when we think of the light found in nature on earth, we think of the sun shining and the moon reflecting light down on us. Explain to the children that the sun is a star and makes BCP DRAFT SCI 39

First Grade - Science - Lesson 27 - The Sun and Moon

light on its own, whereas the moon is a rocky body that simply reflects the light from the sun and does not generate any light on its own. Tell the children that although you can look at the moon without hurting your eyes, the sun is so bright that you must never look straight at it or you could hurt your eyes very badly. If possible, show the children pictures of the sun and the moon

from the books by Seymour Simon or others with which you are familiar.

Tell the children that as well as providing light, the sun is a source of energy for plants, and heat for animals, including humans. The sun's rays are also used to make electrical energy.

Solar energy is free and may last forever, so it may be possible for us to get more of the energy we use from the sun. For example, some houses have panels on them that gather the energy from the sun's rays and make it into energy that can be used to operate things inside the house.

Ask the children to tell the differences they notice between a cloudy day and a sunny day.

Ask: In addition to the rain or snow that clouds sometimes bring, does the sky seem grayer or darker when the sun is blocked by clouds? Say: The same thing happens to the moon at night. If it is a cloudy night we cannot always see the moon clearly.

Tell the children that there is another explanation as to why we don't always see the

whole moon and that is because the moon goes through changes called phases. Explain to the children that the moon moves around the Earth. The moon seems to change its shape as it travels around our planet because as the moon moves, we see different amounts of the moon lit by the sun.

Explain to the children that usually once a month we see a full moon, which means we see all of the side of the moon that is lit by the sun. Say: When there is a big, round, full moon, the night sky is sometimes brighter. At other times we only see half of the moon or a quarter of the moon, which is called a crescent moon. Explain that sometimes the moon is completely dark because the moon is halfway between the sun and the Earth. The dark side of the moon is facing the earth and the sun is shining on the other side. When this happens it is called a new moon and like a full moon this only happens about once a month.

Show the phases of the moon to the children. The following are possible ways to do this:

1. Draw pictures of the phases of the moon on the board, making sure to fill them in with white chalk where appropriate.

2. Demonstrate the phases by shining a flashlight against a wall or blackboard and then passing a circle of construction paper through the stream of light slowly.

3. Cut a circle out of the center of a piece of construction paper and place it on an overhead projector. Move the "moon" cutout over the opening to show the phases.

Give each child a copy of the moon ditto that is included. Label your drawings of the moons on the board. Have the children cut out the moon patterns and paste the patterns down across a piece of black construction paper. (Have them shade one of the full moons in with a gray or black crayon to differentiate between the new and full moon.) With a piece of white chalk, have the children label the different phases of the moon. (Refer them to the board for correct spelling.) Write the title "Phases of the Moon" on the board and have the children copy the title onto the top of their paper. (If you would prefer that the children not use chalk, have the children copy the labels and title onto lined paper and cut and paste the words onto the construction paper.)

BCP DRAFT SCI 40

First Grade - Science - Lesson 28 - The Planets

Objective

Name and sequence the nine planets of our solar system.

Suggested Books

Read Alouds - Non-fiction

Branley, Franklyn M. The Planets in Our Solar System. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1981.

Gibbons, Gail. The Planets. New York: Holiday House, 1993. (Pages 8-25 contain simple descriptions of and basic facts about each of the nine planets in the solar system.)

The following Seymour Simon books may be too advanced for first graders, but they contain nice photographs and illustrations of the planets to show the children.

Simon, Seymour. Jupiter. New York: William Morrow, 1985.

________. Mars. New York: William Morrow, 1987.

________. Mercury. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

________. Neptune. New York: William Morrow, 1991.

________. Saturn. New York: William Morrow, 1985.

________. Uranus. New York: William Morrow, 1987.

________. Venus. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

Read Alouds - Fiction

Coffelt, Nancy. Dogs in Space. San Diego: HBJ, 1993.

Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus Lost in the Solar System. New York: Scholastic, 1990.

Hirst, Robin and Sally. My Place in Space. New York: Orchard, 1988.

Leedy, Loreen. Postcards from Pluto: A Tour of the Solar System. New York: Holiday House, 1993.

Teacher Reference

Reigot, Betty Polisar. A Book About Planets and Stars. New York: Scholastic, 1988.

Materials

Planets chart - If you are unable to find a chart or poster showing the solar system, make a chart showing the nine planets in order from the Sun.

Procedure

If possible start this lesson by reading My Place in Space by Robin and Sally Hirst aloud to the children. My Place in Space is a story about a boy who tells where he lives by starting with his home address and ending with the planet on which he lives. This book would be a nice lead into the discussion that follows, but is not necessary.

Ask: What city do we live in? (Baltimore)

What state do we live in? (Maryland)

Say: The country we live in is bigger than the state in which we live.

Ask: Can anyone name the country in which we live? (The United States)

Say: An area that is bigger than our country is the continent on which we live.

Ask: What is the name of the continent on which we live? (the continent of North America)

BCP DRAFT SCI 41

First Grade - Science - Lesson 28 - The Planets

Explain to the children that even bigger than the continent we live on is the world or planet on which we live. Say: The planet we live on is called Earth. Post a poster or chart (see materials) showing our solar system.

Tell the children that our planet Earth is the third planet from the sun. There are eight

other planets that travel in great big circles around the sun. Explain to the children that a planet

is different from the sun because a planet is not as big or as hot as the sun. The sun is a star and makes light on its own. Name the planets starting with the one closest to the sun--Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. (Point to the planets on the chart as you name them.) Show the children pictures of the planets from the books recommended above. Point out the characteristics of each planet that make the planet special. The following are some of the interesting facts about the planets that you may like to share with the children.

* The largest planet is Jupiter, Saturn the next largest.

* The smallest and coldest planet is Pluto. Pluto is so cold because it is the farthest from the sun.

* The closest planet to the sun is Mercury.

* Mars is sometimes called the Red Planet because the ground there is covered with red soil.

* Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have rings around them.

* Mercury and Venus are the only two planets that don't have at least one moon.

 

Have the children learn and sing the following song about the planets.

Planet Song

Discovering Science. Frank Schaffer Publications, Inc. Torrance, CA, 1994. p. 9.



Sung to the tune of "Way Down Yonder in the Paw Paw Patch."

If you are not familiar with the song, you can recite the two stanzas as a poem.

Here are nine planets that we know.

Round and round the Sun they go.

Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars,

These are the planets near our star.

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, too.

Neptune, Pluto, we can't see you.

These are the nine planets that we know.

Round and round the Sun they go.

Read one of the fiction books (Dogs in Space by Nancy Coffelt or Postcards from Pluto by Loreen Leedy are especially good.) or read parts of one of the non-fiction books listed above. Have the children discuss the new things they have learned about the planets in the solar system.

BCP DRAFT SCI 42

First Grade - Science - Lesson 29 - The Stars

Objectives

Observe the affect of distance on a star's apparent brightness.

Identify the Big Dipper and the North Star.

Suggested Books

Read Alouds

Branley, Franklyn M. The Big Dipper. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

________. The Sky is Full of Stars. New York: Crowell, 1981.

Gibbons, Gail. Stargazing. New York: Holiday House, 1992.

McDonald, Megan. My House Has Stars. New York: Orchard, 1996.

Ray, Deborah Kogan. Stargazing Sky. New York: Crown, 1991.

Teacher References

Krupp, E. C. The Big Dipper and You. New York: Morrow, 1989. (Well written, but a bit long and text-heavy for first graders. You may want to read sections aloud to the children.)

Moore, Patrick. The Starry Sky: The Stars. Brookfield, CT: Copper Beech Books, 1995.

Stoit, Carol. I Wonder Why Stars Twinkle and Other Questions About Space. New York: Kingfisher, 1993.

Thompson, C. E. Constellations: A Field Guide for Young Stargazers. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1989. (Tells the stories associated with a few of the constellations.)

Possible Field Trips

Davis Planetarium at the Maryland Science Center

Also, for 24 hour night sky information you can call the Science Center's star line at 539-STAR.

Materials

Flashlight

Big Dipper diagram (included) - You may wish to make the diagram into an overhead transparency.

Overhead projector (optional)

Procedure

Ask: When you look up at the sky at night, do some stars appear to be brighter than others? Explain to the children that stars are different sizes, some are small and others are quite large. Our sun is a medium-sized star. Stars also appear to be different sizes and levels of brightness because they are different distances from the earth.

Demonstrate how distance affects a star's apparent brightness. Shut off the lights in the room. Stand in the middle of the room and shine the flashlight on the blackboard or wall. Slowly walk toward the board or wall and ask the children to notice what is happening to the light. Call on different children to tell you the changes they see occurring. Explain that a star closer to the Earth will be brighter than a star farther away from the earth.

Ask: Have you ever looked up at the sky and found clouds that were the shape of something familiar to you, such as a dog or a tree or even a person's face? A long time ago

BCP DRAFT SCI 43

First Grade - Science - Lesson 29 - The Stars

people looked up at the stars and found that groups of stars seemed to form shapes that looked

like animals or people. The people gave the groups of stars names and made up stories about them. These groups of stars are called constellations. Since the groups of stars do not change, you can use a map of the stars to find particular constellations. You would look at a map to see which stars make up the constellation and where the constellation is located. One very well known constellation is the Big Dipper.

Draw a diagram of the Big Dipper on the board or use the attached ditto to make an overhead transparency to display. Tell the children that the Big Dipper has helped people for

many, many years to find the direction, north. Point out the stars on the diagram as you explain

the following: The two stars at the front of the dipper's bowl always point to the North Star. If you go from the pointer star at the bottom of the bowl, to the pointer star at the top of the bowl and keep following a straight invisible path away from the Big Dipper, you will find the North Star.

Explain to the children that if a person were walking outside at night and walked toward the North Star they would be heading north. During the time when there was slavery in the South, slaves that were trying to escape to the northern free states would follow the North Star to get to the northern states and freedom.

Ask: Once you know where north is, what other directions can you find? If you are facing north what direction would be behind you? What direction would be to your left? What direction would be to your right?

Tell the children the names of and the stories associated with some of the constellations. Three of the books listed under Teacher Resources above contain constellation stories: The Big Dipper and You by E. C. Krupp, The Starry Sky: The Stars by Patrick Moore, and Constellations: A Field Guide for Young Stargazers by C. E. Thompson.

 

BCP DRAFT SCI 44

First Grade - Science - Lesson 30 - The Earth

Objective

Observe a demonstration of the Earth's rotation, which we experience as day and night.

Suggested Books

Branley, Franklyn M. What Makes Day and Night. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1986.

Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth. New York: Scholastic, 1987.

Fowler, Allan. The Sun is Always Shining Somewhere. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1991.

Gibbons, Gail. Sun Up, Sun Down. San Diego: HBJ, 1983.

Schuett, Stacey. Somewhere in the World Right Now. New York: Knopf, 1995.

Simon, Seymour. Earth. New York: Four Winds Press, 1984.

Singer, Marilyn. Nine O'Clock Lullaby. New York: Scholastic, 1991.

Materials

A lamp

A globe

Drawing paper

Crayons

Procedure

Ask: What is the name of the planet on which we live? (Earth) How many planets are there in our solar system? (nine) Review with the children that Earth is the third planet from the sun. Tell the children that the Earth is special because it is the only planet in the solar system that we know has both water and living things on it.

Explain how the Earth moves around the sun, making sure they understand the sun does not move. It takes the Earth an entire year to travel all the way around the sun. Ask: How many months are there in a year? Say: Let's see if we can name them starting with January.

Next, tell them that not only does Earth move around the sun, but the earth also turns or rotates. Explain to the children that the Earth does not move quickly. One complete rotation of the Earth takes one day or 24 hours. Explain that although it looks as though the sun disappears at the end of the day, it really shines constantly.

Show the children the following demonstration using a lamp and a globe: Because the Earth turns as it moves around the sun, when it is daytime on one part of the Earth, it is nighttime on the opposite side of the Earth. Place a globe next to a lamp (with the bulb uncovered, no lampshade). Point to a continent on the side of the globe facing the lamp and have a child name the continent to which you are pointing. Next, point to a continent on the opposite side of the globe. Have a child name the continent to which you are pointing. Ask a child to point to the side of the globe where it would be daytime. Have another child point to the side where it would be night.

If possible, read Somewhere in the World Right Now or Nine O'Clock Lullaby to the children. (Both books are beautifully illustrated and poetically describe the activities of people in different time zones.) Ask: This morning when you were getting up and getting ready to come to school today, what time of day was it on the other side of the world? Give each child a piece of drawing paper. Have the children fold the paper in half and on one side have the children draw what they were doing this morning and on the other side have the children draw what a child on the other side of the world, say in Asia or Australia, was doing. Ask for volunteers to share their pictures with the class.

BCP DRAFT SCI 45

First Grade - Science - Lesson 31 - Rocks and Minerals

Adapted from STARS - "Solid as a Rock" - Lesson 5 - Describing and Classifying Rocks

Objectives

Identify the layers inside the Earth.

Classify various rocks by physical characteristics.

Suggested Books

Read Alouds

Branley, Franklyn M. Volcanoes. New York: HarperCollins, 1985.

Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth. New York: Scholastic, 1987.

Gibbons, Gail. Planet Earth/Inside Out. New York: Morrow, 1995.

McNulty, Faith. How to Dig a Hole to the Other Side of the Earth. New York: HarperCollins, 1979.

Materials

Samples of metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks

Per group of four

One rock similar to other groups

Bag of various rocks

Hand lenses

Background Information

Rocks make up the crust of the earth. They are mixtures of different minerals. (e.g. quartz, mica, calcite, feldspar, etc.) Minerals can be classified according to their properties. Important properties include hardness, texture, luster, color, and the shape of the particles (minerals). Rocks are classified according to how they are formed. Since a rock is really a substance composed of different minerals, it can consist of various combinations of colors, shapes and hardness.

Procedure

Tell the children that the Earth looks very different if you are looking at the outside. Say: If you were to take a look at the Earth from outer space, you would see areas of blue, green, and white. Ask: What do you think the areas of blue and green are? Since three fourths of the Earth is covered with water, the blue areas you would see are the oceans on Earth, the green areas are land, and the white areas are clouds.

Explain that on the inside, the Earth looks very different. Draw the diagram shown on the next page on the blackboard. Under the ground of the Earth there are four layers: the inner core, the outer core, the mantle, and the crust. Explain to the children that the Earth's crust is the outer part that we see and is made up of rock and soil. The area between the core and the crust is called the mantle and is mostly solid. The outer core is made of liquid metal (iron and nickel) and the inner core is solid metal (iron and nickel). The temperatures are very, very hot in the outer core area so solid metal is turned into liquid metal.

BCP DRAFT SCI 46

First Grade - Science - Lesson 31 - Rocks and Minerals

Adapted from STARS - "Solid as a Rock" - Lesson 5 - Describing and Classifying Rocks



















Divide the class into groups of four. Give each group a rock. Have students observe their

rock in as great a detail as possible. Allow students to share their observations with the class. (Write the responses on a chart/chalkboard.) Tell students to put their rock in a pile on the floor.

Scramble the pile and have one student from each group try to find the group's rock. Have

students talk about how they were able to recognize their rock. Discuss the importance of careful observation with the children. Ask the children to explain why it was easier to find their rock in the pile if they had looked very carefully at the rock when they were in their groups.

Next, give each group a bag of rocks. Have students classify these rocks in various ways. Allow students to share their classifications with the class and tell why they sorted the rocks the way they did. (Accept all classifications.) Using the same rock collection, have students look and describe the differences between the rocks including texture, color, and size. Distribute hand lenses and see if the children can tell other things about rocks that they did not see the first time. Ask: Did using the hand lenses make a difference in your observations? If so, how?

Tell the students that there are different types of rocks--igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Write these names on the blackboard. The different kinds of rocks are made of different materials and in different ways. Igneous rocks are formed when a very hot material called magma cools and hardens. Say: Remember when we studied matter and learned that some liquids become solids when they are cooled. Ask: What happens to water when it is put in the freezer? (It becomes the solid, ice.) Explain that this process is similar to what happens to the magma. As the magma goes from being very hot to cool it becomes a solid. Ask: Who can tell me what a volcano is? Say: When a volcano explodes the lava that comes out of the volcano is magma and that is why igneous rocks are also called volcanic rocks.

Explain that sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are formed from other rocks. Sedimentary rocks are formed when layers of rocks pile together naturally at the bottom of the ocean and the weight of the layers press the rocks together to form a new rock. Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been changed by the heat and pressure inside the earth. If possible show the children an example of a each type of rock (allowing the children to handle and make observations about the texture, color, size, and weight). Possible examples of the three types of rocks are:

Igneous - pumice, granite, obsidian, basalt

Sedimentary - chalk, limestone, shale, sandstone

Metamorphic - marble, slate

Additional Activity

Have the children bring in a rock from their yard or neighborhood to start a class rock collection.

BCP DRAFT SCI 47

First Grade - Science - Astronomy

Bibliography

* Branley, Franklyn M. The Big Dipper. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

________. The Moon Seems to Change. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987.

________. The Sun: Our Nearest Star. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1988.

________. The Planets in Our Solar System. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1981.

________. The Sky is Full of Stars. New York: Crowell, 1981.

________. Volcanoes. New York: HarperCollins, 1985.

________. What Makes Day and Night. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1986.

* Coffelt, Nancy. Dogs in Space. San Diego: HBJ, 1993.

* Cole, Joanna. The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth. New York: Scholastic, 1987.

* ________. The Magic School Bus Lost in the Solar System. New York: Scholastic, 1990.

Fowler, Allan. The Sun is Always Shining Somewhere. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1991.

Gaffney, Timothy R. Grandpa Takes Me to the Moon. New York: Tambourine Books, 1996.

Gibbons, Gail. Planet Earth/Inside Out. New York: Morrow, 1995.

________. The Planets. New York: Holiday House, 1993.

________. Sun Up, Sun Down. San Diego: HBJ, 1983.

* Hirst, Robin and Sally Hirst. My Place in Space. New York: Orchard, 1988.

* Leedy, Loreen. Postcards from Pluto: A Tour of the Solar System. New York: Holiday House, 1993.

McNulty, Faith. How to Dig a Hole to the Other Side of the Earth. New York: HarperCollins, 1979.

Ray, Deborah Kogan. Stargazing Sky. New York: Crown, 1991.

Simon, Seymour. Jupiter. New York: William Morrow, 1985.

________. Mars. New York: William Morrow, 1987.

________. Mercury. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

________. The Moon. New York: William Morrow, 1984.

________. Neptune. New York: William Morrow, 1991.

________. Saturn. New York: William Morrow, 1985.

________. Our Solar System. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

________. The Sun. New York: William Morrow, 1986.

________. Uranus. New York: William Morrow, 1987.

________. Venus. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

* Singer, Marilyn. Nine O'Clock Lullaby. New York: Scholastic, 1991.

 

Teacher Reference

Moore, Patrick. The Starry Sky: The Stars. Brookfield, CT: Copper Beech Books, 1995.

Stoit, Carol. I Wonder Why Stars Twinkle and Other Questions About Space. New York: Kingfisher, 1993.

Thompson, C. E. Constellations: A Field Guide for Young Stargazers. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1989. (Tells the stories associated with a few of the constellations.)





* Titles marked with an asterisk are suggested as part of a lesson.